Forensic medical examination of living persons in the Republic of Lithuania: a comparison with Japan

Daisuke Yajima, Kenji Ishihara, Hisako Takeichi, Romas Raudys, Marija Caplinskiene, Vilija Birziniene, Hisako Saito, Mutsumi Hayakawa, Ayaka Sakuma, Gok Inokuchi, Yosuke Makino, Ayumi Motomura, Fumiko Chiba, Suguru Torimitsu, Namiko Ishii, Hirotaro Iwase

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The practice of forensic medical examination of living persons is to record their injury characteristics, identify mechanism of injury, estimate time of injury, determine degree of severity, and to collect samples in sexual violence cases. While this practice is uncommon for forensic pathologists in Japan, it is a major part of forensic work in Europe. Forensic pathologists produce documents for many purposes: official evidence in judicial procedures, requests for workersʟ compensation and accidental insurance, and deterrence against future violence. In 2012, Lithuanian forensic pathologists dealt with 19,933 cases. Examination of injury accounted for 98ˋ of all cases. The other 2ˋ related to sexual crime. Certified forensic experts determine degrees of severity of injury according to the rules established by agreement of the related Lithuanian governmental ministries. In Japan, by contrast, this practice is unregulated and clinical doctors usually perform forensic examinations. Depending on the doctor, the estimated degree of injury can vary. Producing documentation or testifying in court can also be a burden for clinical doctors. Forensic medical examination of living persons will become more important in Japan in future because of an increase in child abuse cases and the need to produce legally acceptable scientific evidence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-130
JournalChiba Medical Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Forensic medicine
  • Lithuania

Cite this

Yajima, D., Ishihara, K., Takeichi, H., Raudys, R., Caplinskiene, M., Birziniene, V., ... Iwase, H. (2014). Forensic medical examination of living persons in the Republic of Lithuania: a comparison with Japan. Chiba Medical Journal, 90(4), 123-130.