The methodologies of shadow economy estimation in the world and in Lithuania: whether the criterions fixing digital shadow are included?

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The article covers an extremely topical but hardly researched problem of digital shadow economy estimation. Thus far, the phenomenon of digital shadow economy has not been universally defined either by scientists or by institutions responsible for the combat with shadow economy. Traditional shadow economy is commonly estimated applying direct and indirect methods possessing their strengths and weaknesses. As a result, final estimations of shadow economies are rather variant. For instance, with reference to Schneider (2014), the scope of shadow economy in Lithuania achieved 27 per cent rate in 2014 whereas the figure estimated by Lithuanian Department of Statistics composed 15 per cent rate. It can be presumed that the divergence of the results has been determined by application of different shadow economy estimation methods. The interviews with the experts of shadow economy have revealed that although the volumes of e-trade and e-transactions are increasing, indicators of digital shadow are not still included in the estimations of shadow economy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)753-760
JournalProcedia. Economics and finance
Publication statusPublished - 2016



  • Shadow economy
  • Lithuania
  • Digital shadow economy
  • Economy evaluation
  • Direct and indirect methods

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